Development trend of high-strength fasteners and general-purpose components
My country's sales of mechanical fasteners and general parts and components have already ranked among the top in the world, and my country has become a major manufacturer of basic parts and components. The main problem in the development of the industry at this stage is that the industry is large but not strong, and the structural contradiction is prominent. In the face of opportunities and challenges, the situation that basic parts and components lag behind the development of mainframes has attracted great attention from the state.
1. After years of development, the general machinery parts industry has formed an industry with a large scale, complete categories and a solid foundation: there are tens of thousands of general machinery parts enterprises in my country, and more than 5,000 production enterprises above designated size, among which the main backbone enterprises There are more than 200 companies, with annual sales of more than 250 billion yuan and exports of more than 7 billion US dollars. The sales volume of my country's machinery general parts market has been ranked in the forefront of the world, and my country has become a major manufacturer of basic parts and components.
2. The industrial technology has been significantly improved, and the market competitiveness has been further improved: maintaining an average annual growth rate of more than 20% for many years, the industrial technology has been significantly improved, the product structure has been continuously optimized and improved, and the domestic and foreign markets have developed a strong momentum. The domestic market share has reached about 85%, providing most of the accessories for military projects, the independent supporting ability of major technical equipment has been significantly improved, the import and export volume has increased significantly, and the average annual export growth rate is 30%, becoming a major exporter of mechanical and electrical products. International competitiveness was further enhanced. The total import and export value of general parts and components has become the main body of the total import and export value of the major industry of mechanical basic parts, and its import value accounts for about 80% and the export value accounts for about 60%.
3. There has been a qualitative leap in enterprise management level and development concept, and the management and operation quality of enterprise management has been significantly improved: enterprise leaders attach importance to the use of advanced equipment and advanced technology, attach importance to enterprise quality management, attach importance to the training and training of enterprise employees, and attach importance to enterprise software strength. The construction of enterprise management is developing from extensive management to fine management.
(2) Problems: The main problems in the development of the industry at this stage are that the industry is large but not strong, and the structural contradictions are prominent, which are mainly manifested in the following aspects:
1. A large number of key parts and components rely on imports, and core technologies are controlled by others: In 2010, the entire industry imported 13.5 billion US dollars and exported 7 billion US dollars, with a trade deficit of 6.5 billion US dollars. Core technologies such as automatic transmissions for automobiles and transmissions for high-speed trains are imported in large quantities due to human constraints. In 2010, the import of gears was US$10.4 billion, with a deficit of US$8 billion. Fasteners are a big exporter, but the price difference between import and export is as high as 6-8 times.
2. The industrial structure is unreasonable, and the product quality gap is obvious: the production capacity of medium and low-end products is overcapacity, and the capacity of high-end products is insufficient, resulting in low-level repeated construction, homogenization and vicious competition. According to preliminary statistics: high-end products account for about 10%, and mid-range products account for 10%. The ratio is about 50%, and the low-end products account for about 40%. Industry concentration is low, CR10 is about 30%.
The stability, consistency and reliability of product quality vary greatly, and the product life is short, which is generally 30-70% of the life of similar foreign products, and there is a considerable gap with user requirements. There are huge gaps in production efficiency, energy consumption, material consumption, emissions, and environmental protection.
3. Lack of senior technical talents and low level of equipment: There is a shortage of senior innovative technical talents, and the shortage of industrial skilled workers is also common. At present, engineering and technical personnel in the industry account for 5-6% of the incumbents, while those engaged in design and craftsmanship are in the front line. The staff is less than 2%. There are few high-end equipment and more low-end equipment, and the proportion of high-end equipment in enterprises above designated size is about 1%; there are few numerical control equipment, and more motorized electric equipment; more stand-alone work, less automated and intelligent line production equipment; more manual sampling, less online testing, cost-effective The current level of special planes in the industry is significantly different from that of foreign countries.
(3) Opportunities and challenges faced: The situation that basic parts and components seriously lag behind the development of main engines has attracted great attention from the state. The high-end development of parts and components has become a strategic issue in the development of equipment manufacturing industry, and the development mode needs to be changed urgently. To this end, the state has issued a series of policies and measures, such as the "Implementation Plan for the Revitalization of the Machinery Basic Parts Industry" and the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan for the Development of Mechanical Basic Parts, Basic Manufacturing Processes and Basic Materials", which requires "breakthroughs in the key manufacturing of a number of basic parts and components". technology, the product technology level has reached the international advanced level at the beginning of the 21st century”, which creates a good policy environment for the development of basic parts and components.
Domestic market: General machinery parts are important basic parts of industrial products. Government policies drive domestic demand. Automobiles, railways, highways, power generation, power transmission and distribution, environmental protection and infrastructure have developed substantially. There is still a broad market for general machinery parts. space is required. Due to the "globalization" procurement of auto parts and the "localization" strategy of multinational companies, there will be huge market demands for repairs and new cars for gears, fasteners, chains, springs, powder metallurgy, couplings and brakes.
Foreign market: During the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, the industry is faced with changes in domestic and foreign environments, and the structure of market demand will undergo major changes. International trade is slowly recovering. While focusing on domestic sales, we must not relax exports. At the same time, we must actively adjust the distribution of export regions, marketing ratios, and marketing strategies to make the structure of exports more reasonable. It is estimated that during the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, the average export growth rate of industry products will be about 10%.
The key components of construction machinery are the foundation, support and bottleneck for the development of construction machinery products. After the development of construction machinery to a certain stage, the research on high technology in the industry mainly focuses on key components such as engine, hydraulic pressure, transmission and control technology. Mastering and relying on high-quality and distinctive key components has become the strategic way for manufacturers to seek "outstanding".